The leaders agreed that ongoing tension between Qatar and other Gulf countries should be reduced for the sake of the region's security and stability, according to Turkish presidency's press office.
Erdogan and Trump also discussed bilateral ties related to economy and defense sectors, and also agreed to strengthen cooperation in the fight against terrorism.
Several Arab states -- including Saudi Arabia, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Yemen -- have imposed a diplomatic and economic blockade on Qatar, which they accuse of supporting terrorism.
Doha denies the accusations and has rejected a 13-point list of demands it received from the four countries to restore ties.
Turkey has vowed to stand by Qatar and called on Saudi Arabia to end all sanctions against the Gulf state.