Trump's decision last week triggered demonstrations around the world including in the occupied Palestinian territories, Turkey, Egypt, Jordan, Tunisia, Algeria, Iraq and other Muslim countries.
The pro-Jerusalem rally was organized by the Memur-Sen and Hak-Is trade unions, Turkey’s IHH Humanitarian Relief Foundation, the Anatolian Youth Association, and the Cihannuma and ONDER foundations.
"We will not be silenced until Jerusalem is liberated from Zionist occupation," Memur-Sen Chairman Ali Yalcin said, during his opening speech.
"Whatever Masjid al-Haram and Masjid Nabawi mean to us, Masjid al-Aqsa is the same," said Hak-Is Chairman Mahmut Arslan.
IHH Chairman Bulent Yildirim, Anatolian Youth Foundation President Salih Turhan, Cihannuma foundation Deputy Chairman Ahmet Akca and ONDER Foundation Chairman Halit Bekiroglu also addressed the rally.
The uncle of Fawzi al-Juneidi, a Palestinian boy detained by the Israeli authorities last week, also attended the rally on an invitation by the organizers.
Juneidi, 16, has become a symbol of ongoing Palestinian protests against Trump’s decision on Dec. 6.
Grand National Assembly of Turkey Administrator Ahmet Gundogdu, Republican People's Party (CHP) Deputy Chairman Veli Agbaba and other deputies also attended the rally.
The rally started with the national anthem, followed by a performance and recitation of the Quran.
Jerusalem remains at the heart of the Israel-Palestine conflict, with Palestinians hoping that East Jerusalem -- now occupied by Israel -- might eventually serve as the capital of a future Palestinian state.